Benefits Of Urban Regeneration
Benefits Of Urban Regeneration
Keywords: urban regeneration results, urban redevelopment. urban environmental changes
Urban decay, usually connected with deprived areas, tends tend to be a feature of poorer communes, reflecting their low earning power and susceptibility to the higher unemployment rates connected with changes in the framework of the national economy (Skifter Andersen, 2003). The a sense that buildings are actually falling right into a state of decay particularly in some areas a lot more than others, often results in an excrescence of dilapidated and vacant properties. By remaining vacant, buildings are usually targeted for industrial signage and vandalism unless subjected to a population switch or economic restructuring (McGregor and McConnachie, 1995; Skifter Andersen, 2003). The redevelopment of decaying, run-down or underused parts of cities with the intention of bringing new lease of life and economic vitality is essential in maintaining a market position (Bolton Council, 2009).
Redeveloping these structural models, however, may not be an easy task, as a establish physical and casual mechanisms likely to be different atlanta divorce attorneys area, are as well accentuating the condition of urban decay. Regarding to Skifter Andersen (2003), one of the major causes of urban decay may be the decline of the local economy. The alterations in the framework of the nationwide and international economy can immediately or indirectly influence the local market as outlined in Haggett’s Cumulative Decline Style (2001). Certain government intervention and planning plans in regards to to the industry and alterations in the locational choices of the industries to raised equipped sites are also assumed to come to be among the primary factors behind decline by raising the gap between the core and periphery. Similarly, the population age structure in most Western countries is normally changing with a growing amount of elderly dominating the demographic chart (Commission on Progress and Expansion, 2008). This disinclination of the population is likely to remain in the remarkably urbanised areas resulting in a number of blight real estate that are likely to fall into a express of disrepair if structural investment keeps lacking. Perhaps, pursuing Myrdal’s Cumulative Causation theory (1972) will help inject vigour in to the local market from the institutional set-up (Fujita, 2004). However, this process of urban renewal, through which environmental quality redevelopments arise in derelict urban areas, is highly contested.
This chapter reviews picked literature that concerns the consequences of regeneration in the urban core of a settlement with regard to the value enhancement and confident externality of creating refurbishment while deciding the social and economic implications.
Urban regeneration probably to take the kind of public policy in order to regulate urban processes, attempts to improve the urban environment through renewal (Couch et al., 2003). Although seeming fairly simple and straightforward, Home (1982) describes the concept of urban regeneration as involving complex socio-monetary, environmental and political problems, with no profession or educational disciple declaring control over it. Roberts (in Roberts and Sykes, 2000) defines urban regeneration as a vision which contributes to the image resolution of urban challenges and which seeks to deliver lasting socio-economic, physical and environmental conditions of a location that has been at the mercy of change.
Broadly defined as an activity that inhibits the urban cloth from starting or continuing to deteriorate by bettering the urban textile, urban regeneration is certainly fundamental to the framework plans proven by the Malta Environmental and Preparation Authority in 1998 and 2006. In line with the Priority Actions Program/Regional Activity Centre (PAP/RAC, 2004) of the Mediterranean countries, the purpose of urban regeneration assignments as a solution to the phenomenon in developed can be to promote:
“return to the city, revitalise the city center, restore activity in a fiercely competitive foreign context, and implement initiatives to enhance the quality of the environment operating in a broad sense towards a good growth”.
Such systemised and organized action concerning certain elements of a town would mean injecting fresh vigour into a location. Skifter Andersen (2003) argues urban regeneration would transform, strengthen and recreate places to do something as a catalyst for additional investments for the good thing about the neighborhood community. By concentrating open public resources and non-public investments on particularly designated area may turn an area to an excellent appeal (Adair et al., 2000). However, urban regeneration isn’t just concentrated around property-led and retail-led regeneration but likewise through cultural regeneration to convert the town as a type of urban recreation (Evans, 2001). According to Evans (2001), arts and cultural sectors can differentiate themselves by restoring identities and economies with additional lifestyles.
Whilst Calxton and Siora (2008) recognise the retail sector as offering options and employing a variety of different socio-economic organizations, they argue that retail-led regeneration seems to provide a key reconnection to economical opportunity by engaging in direct employment and extra investment for a community and its citizens. Furthermore, Claxton and Siora (2008) maintain that the most successful developments are those backed by the local authorities where planning or financial development departments interact. However, Rubin and Taylor (2008) question the tremendous institutional corporate electric power of certain chain shops that might have some influence on the planning program and in regeneration projects. According to them, the benefits from such regeneration will be overstated as this kind of regeneration creates an inverse system that extorts money out of the local economy resulting in serious consequences for little local businesses.
Pitkin (1963) sustains that as a crucial trait within different Mediterranean communities is the urban ethos, the town is depicted as a place of cultural richness, civilisation and civic pride (Leontidou, 2000). Strengthening this argument, Florida (2003) advised that as public ethos is now increasingly dominant generally in most entrepreneurial and growing regions, it is attracting creative people to metropolis and accentuating the procedures of gentrification. On top of that, Ley (2003) also accentuates the value of cultural and way of life of the middle school, who value the preservation of the historical core and the utilisation of exceptional commodities. Bailey et al. (2004) shows that culture-led regeneration has simply been effective when connected with commercialised identities, hence stressing the need for monetary investments and retail establishments. Hiller (2000) suggests that for waterfront regeneration with transformation of the urban environment with magnificent residences and gentrified neighbourhoods must be create jobs through several office towers as well as shopping centres, included in most projects.
As cities should never be still, Lancaster (1995) acquired previously argued that they are places where people strive to overcome negative effects and create expectation in the area that history has located them. Regarding to Dunn (1998), the buyer culture might therefore motivate people to disattach themselves from their unique spot and associate themselves to the brand new global culture irrelevant of the positioning. Bailey et al. (2004), disagrees and argues that cultural varieties of consumption can actively improve and enliven native communities. Bailey et al. (2004) goes further by suggesting that it’s the people who reside in the city themselves need to engage in regenerating metropolis rather than the planning plans. Kantor et al. (1997), stresses the importance of regional urban democratic circumstances in creating inclusive governing that can influence the local community’s capability to participate and have a reach available.
As identified by Kennedy and Leonard (2001), gentrification consists of the processes of reinvestment and revitalisation to improve the physical and socio-economic pieces of cities. In this relationship, larger income households settle in that settle in the area, update the physical and socio-economic element of low income residences. Smith (1987b, p.463), especially stated that the crucial point in regards to to gentrification is certainly that:
“â€¦it involves not just a social change but also, at the neighbourhood level, a physical transformation in the housing stock and an financial change in the territory and housing marketplace. It is this combo of public, physical, and economic modification that distinguishes gentrification as an identifiable method/set of processes”.
Furthermore, Wyly and Hammel (1999, p.716) put that the process of gentrification complements:
“class transformation of those parts of the city that experienced from systematic outmigration, disinvestment and neglect, or neglect in the midst of rapid economical growth and suburbanisation”.
Badcock (2001), argues that today the procedure of gentrification and restructuring have grown to be so interrelated together that they have created the broader transformation known as revitalisation. Furthermore, households of median and larger incomes generally benefit the preservation of the historical core and contribute to increasing the area’s ethos (Ley, 2003). Therefore, career in the tertiary, quaternary and quinary sectors of development, usually associated with having a university degree, is a key indicator of gentrification regarding to Ley (2003). Quite simply, the post-contemporary lifestyles of consumption are the alternative towards revitalisation of a spot through the techniques of gentrification. Consequently, the procedure of gentrification could be said to be the outcome of the number of responses to the brand new economic and social possibilities that arise from prior dispositions of the social classes (Bridge 2001).
On the other palm, Smith and Williams (1986) were particularly concerned with displacement and the side effects the middle class is having on the lower working school through the functions of gentrification. Although the level of the problem is not arranged, Sumka (1979) argues that displacement of the operating class through rent boosts was undoubtedly a significant issue. Recently, Blomley (2004) outlines that the social mixture the processes of gentrification provide with them have a tendency to expose the performing classes to several equalities in the interpersonal hierarchy as interaction between your owners and tenants in gentrified neighbourhoods seems to get limited. Slater (2006) argues that process can bring about interpersonal segregation and isolation when seeking to revitalise a neighbourhood. However, relating to Sigworth and Wilkinson (1967) the helpful effects to the community through gentrification outweigh the issues of social segregation which is often resolved through several policies.
In a society where the lack of building care traditions is increasing, prompt maintenance would help make aging buildings less problematic to rehabilitate as it is often the case that such buildings are found in a state of disrepair with many safety problems. Throughout the 1970s, a lot of the European countries had currently started emphasise the gradual renewal procedure for rehabilitation rather than concentrating on the massive redevelopments simultaneously (Wood, 1991).
Thomas (1977), advised that making way for redevelopment would give an opportunity to
replace any substandard buildings, any clashes with regard to the land-use, together with any environmental nuisance. Although essentially the procedure of redevelopment causes a whole lot of inconvenience since it dislocates persons (Sumka, 1979; Smith and Williams, 1986; Blomley, 2004), redevelopment can help utilizing the full potential of a niche site together with exploiting the beneficial results to the city such as solving the problems related to public segregation (Sigworth and Wilkinson, 1967). Amongst the primary problems that dominate the list for the issue of urban renewal, the lack of institutional setting up (Adams and Hastings, 2001) and unfair reimbursements (Kam et al., 2004). This raises the issue of whether it might be eloquent to redevelop rather than to rehabilitate certain properties in some areas. It was proposed that your choice making on whether to “rehabilitate” or “redevelop” is generally influenced by six aspects namely; political, legal, technological, institutional, social and financial forces (Walker, 2002). According to Olson et al. (2001) and Hobman and Bordia (2006), the influences of the professional function background on the attitudes towards a renewal task can also make a difference. For example, building surveyors are thought to consider the structural circumstances of a specific building as the most vital concepts of consideration in a regeneration method. Conversely, the city planners have a tendency to give extra importance to the impacts of the job in the visual top quality and micro environment of the neighbourhood rather than the structural conditions of a construction (Olson et al., 2001, Hobman and Bordia, 2006).
Despite these converging opinions, it is evident that the execution of an urban renewal approach especially when done on a massive scale would add a strong financial input. This might also have to be coupled with adequate public methods, and a determined commitment to solving to the urban dereliction problems while aiming towards increasing the social and economical rewards and fostering entrepreneurial activity (Hamnet, 2000; Skifter Andersen, 2003; Calxton and Siora, 2008). In such situations, additionally it is advisable that there must be advancements to the infrastructure, the transportation system along with the environment that should all coincide with the renewal creation that has the support of most social companions (Adair et al., 2000). Yet, as such conditions rarely occur, policy manufacturers must shape their development plans based after the constraints they confront at the particular moment in time. Williams (2006) advised that as a way to ensure a more successful project, the ruling authority can also use its powers associated with property advancement how to create a thesis statement to influence the look, the infrastructure and the compulsory order powers together with the option of public land possessions. When trading land for example, it isn’t a uncommon occurrence that one get together missing from the marketplace forum and thus the scenario of a compulsory pay for might be required to ensure that the renewal project not to be taken to a halt because by the individual monetary forces (Williams, 2006).
To redevelop or to rehabilitate?
Specifically on property-led redevelopment, Harvey (1992) highlighted that the timing of redevelopment tasks depend on three essential problems being; the value of the existing existing use of the land resource, the current value of the greatest of alternative employ, and the price of rebuilding. As the application of property is not irreversible, property has the potential to get redeveloped and changed into another type or use to suit the expected socio-economic demands at a given time (Gunnerlin, 2001). According to the structure plan issued by the Malta Setting up Authority (PA) (1998), you will find a need:
“to use terrain and buildings efficiently and consequently channel urban creation activity into planned created areas specifically though rehabilitation and upgrading of existing textile and infrastructure”.
Notionally, if today’s value of the prevailing make use of the land solutions is greater than the present value of the best alternative use, redevelopment would not take place because it would not be financially viable, and the rebuilding costs would affect the occurrence of urban renewal. This explains why in some cases redevelopment in the old, urban core is significantly less attractive to the coders (Harvey and Jowsey, 2004).
As for the option of rehabilitation, which means securing the existing structure, it was concluded that it could only be advantageous whenever a number of circumstances are met (Pugh, 1991). This would imply that the service existence of a building will be prolonged by another thirty to fifty years. Furthermore, the value plus the interest rate of the existing building would also need to be high. Also, Pugh (1991) argues that if the direct and indirect costs of rehabilitating will be considerably less than those incurred by rebuilding, then your developer would be extra tempted to rehabilitate instead of redevelop. Ratcliffe (1993) likewise estimated that the costs of renovating a construction can total twenty-five percent less than starting a new building project and therefore making it more attractive for developers. Aikivuori (1994) points out that refurbishments may occasionally be required when there exists a need for transformation in the land-use together with when there is a have to increase or secure the marketplace value of the construction. Additionally, this would also help to preserve the prevailing building and its externalities that could be significant in inducing a culture-led regeneration.
Challenges facing the renewal process
“Housing is definitely regarded as a durable commodity” (Wieand, 1999), yet, like any different physical commodity, homes are subject to deteriorate as time goes by and eventually fall right into a state of dilapidation if they’re not properly maintained (Burton 1933). Many previous studies contain highlighted among of the primary factors that would make a construction deemed for renewal will be the serviceable environment (Sohmer, 1999). Others like Rosenfeld and Shohet (1999) have produced products to determine whether and when a building should be upgraded. This helped to reduce uncertainties and serve as an help when deciding whether to update or not.
Nonetheless, one should not forget there are always a couple of constraints that will probably slow or halt the process of urban renewal. The multiple ownership of a number of properties is one of them for example (Chun To Cho and Fellows, 2000; Galea Debono, 2009). So are the restrictions on the creation in the urban village key through the Urban Conservation Spot (UCA) which restricts certain types of redevelopment projects. Additionally, it is also likely that there may be disputes along the way of resettling those influenced and disagreements on compensation issues which will make it more challenging for the private developers to find a compromise with the landowners (Sumka, 1979; Smith and Williams, 1986; Blomley, 2004). Furthermore, additionally it is often the case that the lack of a central governing body to put into practice redevelopment and exclusive developers’ little presumptive power, wrap up with the developers having fragmented, slow improvement (Gordon, 2004).
Positive outcomes from urban regeneration
Fundamentally, the process of urban regeneration would help contribute towards the preservation of structures of architectural value and significant historical importance (Jim, 1994). A sustainable regeneration scheme should subsequently endeavour to lesson cultural exclusion, boost financial reintegration in addition to salvage architecturally rich buildings and edifices (McGregor and McConnachie, 1995; Skifter Andersen, 2003; Bailey et al.,2004). In any other case, an urban regeneration task could be a source of conflict and thus it might prove valuable to develop a decision making tool to facilitate the look process as recommended by Walker (2002) and Ho et al. (2004) in physique 2.1.
Figure Project center making tool (Ho et al., 2004).
Eventually, task regeneration proposals could be assessed and alterations can be made in order to achieve a higher rating for the program which is at the mercy of time, budgetary and various other practical constraints (Ho et al., 2004). Regarding to Kocabas, (2000a), evaluating the influence of protection planning would ideally determine outcomes against the physical, social and economical objectives. This will preserve the physical historic environment, the needs of the prevailing residents during the procedure for upgrading together with determining if the conservation method is economically viable (Kocabas, 2000a). Alternatively, Borja et al. (1997) showed that the socio-spatial outcomes of globalisation on cities varied in line with the correlation between your technological and economic functions that form the key because of this transformation.
Whilst it really is now widely accepted that “no metropolis can escape the reach of global economical and political forces” (Sassen, 2000; Taylor and Walker, 2001), additionally it is clear that “towns can upgrade their posture in the global hierarchy by their strategic intervention” (Clarke and Gaile, 1997). This is the case with Ireland in 1988, for instance. With the aid of the European Commission, Ireland reflected on the problems manufactured through the demolishment of properties in inner Dublin through the “Greater Dublin Area Development Program” secured and handled the preservation of the made traditional environment (Pickard, 1994).
Essentially, the update or upkeep of neighbourhood externalities can be thought to donate to the migration and related switch in a neighbourhood’s economical status for two significant reasons. Firstly, selected types of households may behave in ways that generate social capital and affluence for the neighbourhood influencing the demand for that site, thus, the process of gentrification (Ley, 2003). Likewise, selected types of households may also want to migrate into or out of a neighbourhood based on the demographic and financial characteristics of their possible neighbours due to the social status, regardless of how these neighbours may behave (Rosenthal, 2008). In spite of this, it is important to recognise that raising a neighbourhood’s monetary status will not necessarily alleviate poverty but could simply force the existing low income occupants to relocate to the areas of the locality. Jacobs (1961) argued that instead of getting suffocated by urban regeneration, social life should be revived, thus, the procedure of gentrification may not be always seen in a good light especially from those people who are less affluent and other deprived sections of world (Sumka, 1979; Smith and Williams, 1986; Blomley, 2004). Therefore, construction rehabilitation may garner extra support as it causes less cultural disturbances (Needleman, 1966; DeFilippis, 2007).
Achieving success through failure
Amongst the good examples of successful waterfront regeneration tasks that have managed to generate enough occupations for the locals, Gloucester, Swansea, Cardiff
and Liverpool immediately stick out in the United Kingdom (Jones and Gripaios, 2000). In such cases, several listed warehouses had been refurbished and transformed to supply residential, workplace, retail, museum, marinas and cafe establishments. Liverpool’s Albert Dock, for instance, has been so good as a heritage web page that once was in a state of decay that it right now gets around six million site visitors yearly (Jones and Gripaios, 2000). From being truly a totally abandoned and neglected eyesore, the Albert Dock has been turned into a visually pleasing environment with obvious and tangible manifestations of powerful regeneration project in britain. Canary Wharf in London is certainly another successful redevelopment that even managed to generate 7,000 jobs for the locals (Daniels and Bobe, 1993).
In spite of the successful instances of regeneration, the process of urban renewal nonetheless generates a great deal of heated debate in particular when confronted fierce opposition from the locals that dread that there would no significant improvement within their standard of living such as for example in the case of Canary Wharf in London. Quite rightly as Jeffrey and Pounder (2000) suggest, the physical improvement of a construction is a fundamental element in achieving an effective regeneration project, however Hausner (1993), suggested that on its own it is not enough as the advancement of any job reflects the conditions and requirements of the area where the project is located from a wider point of view. Furthermore, Moore (2002) sustains that the proactive use of this policy might even improve the local monetary development and even create new working locations, however, this may only be for a short while. Hemphill et al. (2004) argues that much of the research conducted in the United Kingdom tends to be critical as you will find a persistent sentiment that urban insurance policy has not really left lots of the desired effects on the regenerated region. This had recently been thought earlier as even though the inner-city redevelopments generally increase and enhance the degraded built conditions, there is certainly criticism that such tasks only cater to certain sectors of society and particular locations such as waterfronts and thus these types of projects can fragment metropolitan areas (Fainstein, 1994; Meyer, 1999; Marshall, 2003).
Further criticism concludes that the stated goal of urban design and renewal can often be forgotten as the principles have become merely a marketing tool (Gospodini, 2002). Moreover, it really is generally felt that the idea of urban renewal is as well vague with the fusion of the traditional architecture, the scenery architecture, and the look and civil engineering. Because of this, urban renewal is reported to be focused generally on the marginal aesthetic aesthetics of the landscape instead of helping to sustain an improved standard of surviving in the region (Inam, 2002). Hubbard (2006) added that the cultural and also economic conditions of a location are usually worsened though the regeneration and gentrification plans that are designed to be beneficial. On a wider scale, Newman and Thornley (1996) had previously suggested that on the other hand with other cities, the key European cities such as; Paris, Milan, Berlin, Frankfurt and Stockholm will be underpinned by the factor of the foreign competitiveness rather than by the notion of urban policy and then the residents’ quality lifestyle has nothing to accomplish idea of urban renewal. Bentley (1999) went even further and argued that in addition to the social, monetary and environmental limitations, the idea of urban design is normally manipulated by programmers and general public authorities to covertly hijack public space and neglect native conditions and values. Revitalisation projects targeted parts of the cities, such as decayed port areas and other post-industrial sites, for key redevelopments to ensure that the area in place becomes totally gentrified resulting in a residential area for the extra affluent citizens instead of the whole society on the whole (Bentley,1999 clear papers).
Proprietors’ awareness and involvement
It is obvious that one of biggest barriers when it comes to building maintenance is the owners’ awareness that find it hard to realise the basic types of decay and the resulting impact on the building materials (Kangwa and Olubodun, 2003). To create matters worse, when action is taken, it is often the case an inappropriate remediation approach is applied (Leather and Mackintosh, 1994; Forrest et al., 1996). Therefore, any effective renewal system should be constructed upon up to date diagnostic skill structures. Chanter and Swallow (1996) and Davidson et al. (1997) have suggested that a few of the key awareness problems in addition to the variants in perceptions of things of regular maintenance include the inability to tell whether inferior goods or components are used to rehabilitate the setting up. Furthermore, in addition they add that the common owner is generally struggling to determine the caliber of work done by the traders and cannot judge effectively the degree of skill required for a particular work. In the end they argue that the lack of a referral program within the local casing communities which would become an initial contacts for guidance and general information on housing maintenance. Therefore, it is normally the circumstance that waves of creating depilation later turn into the procedure of urban decay that is a major problem in most developed cities (Skifter Andersen, 1995).
It should be recognised that the local inhabitants are fundamentally the challenge solvers and play a significant and useful role not only in implementing regeneration approaches but also in preserving the socio-economical improvement of the neighbourhood over the years. As powerlessness is definitely central to people’s experience of poverty and exclusion, the people in general are more likely to involve themselves if they can clearly discover their contribution in metropolis (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2005). Throughout the last number of years, the local citizens have also been emphasizing that new developments should retain their private characteristic and identity so that you can reflect their collective remembrances. Public discussion meetings are no longer satisfying the citizens as they believe that a comprehensive public engagement workout for the project is required and more channels should be provided for them to express their opinions on the advancements (Lee and Chan, 2008).
Research has proven that in the lack of government intervention, property owners are prepared to improve their buildings and edifices because it would improve the market worth of the refurbished houses provided that there is enough information for people to take practical decisions (Holm, 2000; Gregg and Crosbie, 2001). Besides from having restored setting up edifices, this kind of refurbishment task is estimated to boost the market price of the house which leaves an excellent profit after deducting the costs of the refurbishment task (Chau et al., 2003). Improvements on the buildings specifically on the facades happen to be intuitively expected to have a positive effect on properties next to the building due to the improved visual quality enjoyed by the near by residents. Likewise, unsightly externalities are manufactured by the unsightliness of poorly maintained properties, therefore, refurbishing these poor taken care of buildings should reduce and even counter the negative impact (Colwell et al., 2000; Boyle and Kiel, 2001).
Nevertheless, while everyone would reap the benefits of improving the exterior conditions of the properties, the marketplace value of the real estate improved first would have their value depreciated by the dire condition of the neighbouring homes and thus for a person to take the first step would not be easy. As a result, the unimproved houses would experience a rise in value therefore of the local investments done by the others. Consequently, this might also lead to a market failing as the refurbishment process may never take off completely leading to an expenditure which is significantly less than what was desired (Hui et al., 2007). Should more information on the enhanced market value of a refurbished setting up be made available, then your long-term sustainability of a rehabilitation work would be incorporated in to the urban renewal strategies easily, however, one must not forget that the consequences might not be felt until a long time. In this particular scenario, the authority in charge should encourage and motivate designers and owners to instigate redevelopment. Ultimately, the procedure of renewal is usually a “product of an incremental decision making” as owners have to determine whether to rehabilitate or redevelop their built terrain which is subject to facing obsoleteness (Bryson, 1997).
Figure 1: Hamdi (2004) Everyone (civic contemporary society) should benefit by participating
As authorities are greatly regarded as the ones in charge of the procedure of urban decay, they began to be seen as being struggling to engage successfully with the non-public sector. With the rise of the new conservative movements, the neighborhood government started to be marginalised in favour of the non-public sector when it came to taking decisions (Gullino, 2008). This led to private sector being put at the centre of the renewal activities as these kinds of projects are assumed to get new fiscal capital (Bianchini et al., 1992; Loftman and Nevin, 1995). Despite the process of urban renewal through which environmental quality redevelopments happens in derelict urban areas is extremely contested, the redevelopment of decaying, run-down or underused parts of cities with the purpose of bringing new lease of life into them and economic vitality is essential in maintaining market position (Bolton Council, 2009). Regeneration projects would so ideally foster a number of schemes to achieve the right speed of regeneration that is sustainable. Particular attention ought to be paid in order not to harm the community when renewal occurs as well fast and not to prevent the momentum, dedication and enthusiasm when the procedure of renewal happens too slowly. Design also needs to include the latest energy efficiency criteria where possible and the highest quality design and resources which represent the neighborhood culture and traditional abilities should be used (Buhagiar, 2005). Above all, as already mentioned, the residents’ thoughts and stories have to be understood in any proposed regeneration scheme to truly deliver a sustainable environment which imposes all sectors of world to undertake the duty of bringing back life and vibrancy to neglected areas in a city (Hamdi, 2004, Ho et al., 2008).
Figure 2: Ho et al. (2008)Hamdi, N. (2004). Small Switch: About the fine art of practice and the limits of planning in metropolitan areas, Earthscan, London.